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    Menstrual disorders

    Dysmenorrhea; Menorrhagia; Amenorrhea; Cramps; Heavy menstrual bleeding

    An in-depth report on the causes, treatment, and prevention of menstrual cramps.


    Menstrual Disorders

    Menstrual disorders include:

    • Dysmenorrhea refers to painful cramps during menstruation.
    • Menorrhagia is heavy bleeding, including prolonged menstrual periods or excessive bleeding during a normal-length period.
    • Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation.
    • Oligomenorrhea refers to light or infrequent menstrual periods.

    Treatment for Menstrual Disorders

    Treatment options for menstrual disorders include:

    • Acetaminophen (Tylenol, generic) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, generic) and naproxen (Aleve, generic) can help provide pain relief for cramps.
    • Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) can help regulate menstrual periods and reduce heavy bleeding. Newer continuous-dosing oral contraceptives reduce or eliminate menstrual periods. Progesterone injections with Depo-Provera are another option. The LNG-IUS (Mirena), a progesterone intrauterine device (IUD), is often recommended as a first-line treatment for heavy bleeding
    • Endometrial ablation is a surgical option. In some cases, hysterectomy may be considered.

    Research News

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) works better for improving quality of life for women with heavy bleeding than medical treatments with oral estrogen-progesterone contraceptives or progesterone injections, suggests a 2013 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.


    Menstrual disorders are problems that affect a woman's normal menstrual cycle. They include painful cramps during bleeding, abnormally heavy bleeding, or not having any bleeding.

    Menstruation occurs during the years between puberty and menopause. Menstruation, also called a "period," is the monthly flow of blood from the uterus through the cervix and out through the vagina.

    The Female Reproductive System

    The organs and structures in the female reproductive system include:

    • The


      is a pear-shaped organ located between the bladder and lower intestine.
    • The


      is the lower portion of the uterus. It has a narrow opening called the


      , which connects to the vagina and allows menstrual blood to flow out of the uterus into the


    • The

      fallopian tubes

      connect the uterus and ovaries.


      are egg-producing organs that hold 200,000 to 400,000


      (from folliculus, meaning "sack" in Latin). These cellular sacks contain the materials needed to produce ripened eggs, or


      . An egg develops within the follicle.
    • The


      is the inner lining of the uterus. During pregnancy it thickens and becomes enriched with blood vessels to house and nourish the growing fetus.
    • If pregnancy does not occur, the endometrium is shed and a woman starts


      . Menstrual flow also consists of blood and mucus from the cervix and vagina.

    The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The ovaries produce the eggs that travel through the fallopian tubes. Once the egg has left the ovary it can be fertilized and implant itself in the lining of the uterus. The main function of the uterus is to nourish the developing fetus prior to birth.

    The Menstrual Cycle

    The menstrual cycle is regulated by the complex surge and fluctuations in many different reproductive hormones. These hormones work together to prepare a women's body for pregnancy. The hypothalamus (an area in the brain) and the pituitary gland control six important hormones:

    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

      is released by the hypothalamus.
    • GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce

      follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)


      luteinizing hormone (LH).

    • Estrogen



      , and the male hormone


      are secreted by the ovaries at the command of FSH and LH.

    The menstrual cycle begins with the first day of bleeding. The menstrual cycle is divided into three phases:

    • Follicular:

      The follicular phase begins with menstrual bleeding. At the start of this phase, estrogen and progesterone levels are at their lowest point, which causes the uterine lining to break down and shed. At the same time, the hypothalamus produces GnRH which stimulates production of FSH and LH. As FSH levels increase, they signal the ovaries to produce follicles. Each follicle contains an egg. As FSH levels surge and decline, only one follicle and its egg continues to develop. The maturing follicle releases estrogen, which signals that an egg is mature and ready for egg release (ovulation).
    • Ovular:

      Ovulation marks the halfway point in the menstrual cycle. The ovular phase begins with a surge in LH and FSH levels. Ovulation occurs about 12 to 36 hours after LH levels surge. The follicle bursts and releases the egg, which travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus. (Some women experience a quick dull abdominal pain called mittelschmerz, ["middle pain" because it occurs in the middle of the monthly cycle] when the follicle ruptures.) A woman is most likely to get pregnant in the 3 to 5 days before ovulation or the day of ovulation. The egg can live for up to 24 hours after being released.
    • Luteal

      : After releasing the egg, the ruptured follicle closes and forms

      corpus luteum

      , a yellow mass of cells that provide a source of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy. These hormones help the uterine lining to thicken and prepare for the egg's fertilization. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it implants in the uterus and pregnancy begins. If fertilization does not occur, the egg breaks apart. The corpus luteum degenerates, and estrogen and progesterone levels drop. Finally, the thickened uterine lining sloughs off and is shed along with the unfertilized egg during menstruation and the menstrual cycle begins again.

    Typical Menstrual Cycle

    Menstrual Phases

    Typical No. of Days

    Hormonal Actions

    Follicular (Proliferative) Phase

    Cycle Days 1 to 6: Beginning of menstruation to end of blood flow.

    Estrogen and progesterone start out at their lowest levels.

    FSH levels rise to stimulate maturity of follicles. Ovaries start producing estrogen and levels rise, while progesterone levels remains low.

    Cycle Days 7 to 13: The endometrium thickens to prepare for the egg implantation.


    Cycle Day 14:

    Surge in LH. Largest follicle bursts and releases egg into fallopian tube.

    Luteal (Secretory) Phase, also known as the Premenstrual Phase

    Cycle Days 15 to 28:

    Ruptured follicle develops into corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. Progesterone and estrogen stimulate blanket of blood vessels to prepare for egg implantation.

    If fertilization occurs:

    Fertilized egg attaches to blanket of blood vessels that supplies nutrients for the developing placenta. Corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone.

    If fertilization does not occur:

    Corpus luteum deteriorates. Estrogen and progesterone levels drop. The blood vessel lining sloughs off and menstruation begins.

    Features of Menstruation

    Onset of Menstruation (Menarche):

    The onset of menstruation, called the menarche, typically begins between the ages of 12 to 13 years. Menarche generally occurs 2 to 3 years after initial breast development (breast budding). African-American and Hispanic girls tend to mature slightly earlier than Caucasian girls. A higher body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with earlier puberty and menarche. Environmental factors and nutrition may also affect when menstruation begins.

    Length of Monthly Cycle:

    The average menstrual cycle is about 28 days but anywhere from 21 days to 35 days is considered normal. Cycles tend to be longer during the teenage years and they also lengthen when a woman reaches her 40s. Cycle length is most irregular around the time that girls first start menstruating (menarche) and when women stop

    Duration of Periods:

    Most women bleed for around 3 to 5 days but a normal period can last anywhere from 2 to 7 days.

    Normal Absence of Menstruation:

    Normal absence of periods can occur in any woman under the following circumstances:

    • Menstruation stops during pregnancy. Some women continue to have irregular bleeding during the first trimester. This bleeding may indicate a miscarriage and requires immediate medical attention.
    • When women breast-feed they are unlikely to ovulate. After that time, menstruation usually resumes, and they are fertile again.
    • Perimenopause

      (transition to menopause) starts when the intervals between periods begin to lengthen, and it ends with menopause itself (the complete cessation of menstruation). Menopause

      usually occurs at about age 51, although smokers often go through menopause earlier.

    Menstrual Disorders

    There are several types of menstrual disorders. Problems can range from heavy, painful periods to no periods at all. There are many variations in menstrual patterns, but in general women should be concerned when periods come fewer than 21 days or more than 3 months apart, or if they last more than 10 days. Such events may indicate ovulation problems or other medical conditions.

    Dysmenorrhea (Painful Cramps)

    Dysmenorrhea is severe, frequent cramping during menstruation. Pain occurs in the lower abdomen but can spread to the lower back and thighs. Dysmenorrhea is usually referred to as primary or secondary:

    • Primary dysmenorrhea

      is cramping pain caused by menstruation. The cramps occur from contractions in the uterus and are usually more severe during heavy bleeding.
    • Secondary dysmenorrhea

      is menstrual-related pain that accompanies another medical or physical condition, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.

    Menorrhagia (Heavy Bleeding)


    is the medical term for significantly heavier periods. Menorrhagia can be caused by a number of factors.

    During a normal menstrual cycle, the average woman loses about 1 ounce (30 mL) of blood and changes her tampons or pads around 3 to 6 times per day.

    With menorrhagia, menstrual flow lasts longer and is heavier than normal. The bleeding occurs at regular intervals (during periods). It usually lasts more than 7 days and women lose an excessive amount of blood. Clot formation is common. Menorrhagia is often accompanied by dysmenorrhea because passing large clots can cause painful cramping.

    Menorrhagia is a type of abnormal uterine bleeding. Other types of abnormal bleeding are:

    • Metrorrhagia

      , also called breakthrough bleeding, refers to bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals and with variable amounts. The bleeding occurs between periods or is unrelated to periods. Spotting or light bleeding between periods is common in girls just starting menstruation and sometimes during ovulation in young adult women.
    • Menometrorrhagia

      refers to heavy and prolonged bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals. Menemetrorrhagia combines features of menorrhagia and metrorrhagia. The bleeding can occur at the time of menstruation (like menorrhagia) or in between periods (like metrorrhagia).
    • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

      (DUB) is a general term for abnormal uterine bleeding that usually refers to extra or excessive bleeding caused by hormonal problems, usually lack of ovulation (anovulation). DUB tends to occurs either when girls begin to menstruate or when women approach menopause, but it can occur at any time during a woman's reproductive life.
    • Other types of abnormal uterine bleeding

      include bleeding after sex and bleeding after menopause. Postmenopausal bleeding is not normal and can be a sign of a serious condition.

    Amenorrhea (Absence of Menstruation)

    Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation. There are two categories: primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. These terms refer to the time when menstruation stops:

    • Primary amenorrhea

      occurs when a girl does not begin to menstruate by age 16. Girls who show no signs of sexual development (breast development and pubic hair) by age 13 should be evaluated by a doctor. Any girl who does not have her period by age 15 should be evaluated for primary amenorrhea.
    • Secondary amenorrhea

      occurs when periods that were previously regular stop for at least 3 months.

    Oligomenorrhea (Light or Infrequent Menstruation)


    is a condition in which menstrual cycles are infrequent, occurring more than 35 days apart. It is very common in early adolescence and does not usually indicate a medical problem.

    When girls first menstruate they often do not have regular cycles for several years. Even healthy cycles in adult women can vary by a few days from month to month. Periods may occur every 3 weeks in some women, and every 5 weeks in others. Flow also varies and can be heavy or light. Skipping a period and then having a heavy flow may occur; this is most likely due to missed ovulation rather than a miscarriage.

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that occur during the last week of the luteal phase (a week before menstruation) in most cycles. The symptoms typically do not start until at least day 13 in the cycle, and resolve within 4 days after bleeding begins.

    Women may begin to have premenstrual syndrome symptoms at any time during their reproductive years, but it usually occurs when they are in their late 20s to early 40s. Once established, the symptoms tend to remain fairly constant until menopause, although they can vary from cycle to cycle.


    Many different factors can trigger menstrual disorders, including hormone imbalances, genetic factors, clotting disorders, and pelvic diseases.

    Causes of Dysmenorrhea (Painful Periods)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that are produced in the uterus and cause the uterine muscle to contract. Prostaglandins also play a role in the heavy bleeding that causes dysmenorrhea.

    Secondary dysmenorrhea can be caused by a number of medical conditions. Common causes of secondary dysmenorrhea include:

    • Endometriosis:

      Endometriosis is a chronic and often progressive disease that develops when the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrium) grows onto other areas, such as the ovaries, bowels, or bladder. It often causes chronic pelvic pain.

    Endometriosis is the condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrium) grows on other areas of the body, causing pain and irregular bleeding.

    • Uterine Fibroids:

      Fibroids are noncancerous growths that grow on the walls of the uterus. They can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation and cramping pain.
    • Other Causes

      : Pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and ectopic pregnancy. The intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive can also cause secondary dysmenorrhea.

    Causes of Menorrhagia (Heavy Bleeding)

    There are many possible causes for heavy bleeding:

    • Hormonal Imbalances:

      Imbalances in estrogen and progesterone levels can cause heavy bleeding. Hormonal imbalances are common around the time of menarche and menopause.
    • Ovulation Problems:

      If ovulation does not occur (anovulation), the body stops producing progesterone, which can cause heavy bleeding.
    • Uterine Fibroids:

      Uterine fibroids are a very common cause of heavy and prolonged bleeding.
    • Uterine Polyps:

      Uterine polyps (small benign growths) and other structural problems or other abnormalities in the uterus may cause bleeding.
    • Endometriosis and Adenomyosis:

      Endometriosis, a condition in which the cells that line the uterus grow outside of the uterus in other areas, such as the ovaries, can cause heavy bleeding. Adenomyosis, a related condition where endometrial tissue develops within the muscle layers of the uterus, can also cause heavy bleeding and menstrual pain.
    • Medications and Contraceptives:

      Certain drugs, including anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory medications, can cause heavy bleeding. Problems linked to some birth control methods, such as birth control pills or intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause bleeding.
    • Bleeding Disorders:

      Bleeding disorders that stop blood from clotting can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. Most of these disorders have a genetic basis. Von Willebrand disease is the most common of these bleeding disorders.
    • Cancer:

      Rarely, uterine, ovarian, and cervical cancer can cause excessive bleeding.
    • Infection:

      Infection of the uterus or cervix can cause bleeding.
    • Pregnancy or Miscarriage:

      Spotting is very common during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Heavier bleeding may also occur. Heavy bleeding during the first trimester may be a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, but it may also be due to less serious causes that do not harm the woman or her baby.
    • Other Medical Conditions:

      Systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, pelvic inflammatory disorder, cirrhosis, and thyroid disorders can cause heavy bleeding.

    Fibroid tumors may not need to be removed if they are not causing pain, bleeding excessively, or growing rapidly.

    Causes of Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea (Absent or Light Periods)

    Normal causes of skipped or irregular periods include pregnancy, breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, and perimenopause. Skipped periods are also common during adolescence, when it may take a while before ovulation occurs regularly. Consistently absent periods may be due to the following factors:

    • Delayed Puberty:

      A common cause of primary amenorrhea (absence of periods) is delayed puberty due to genetic factors. Failure of ovarian development is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea.
    • Hormonal Changes and Puberty:

      Oligomenorrhea (light or infrequent menstruation) is commonly experienced by girls who are just beginning to have their periods.
    • Weight Loss and Eating Disorders:

      Eating disorders are a common cause of amenorrhea in adolescent girls. Extreme weight loss and reduced fat stores lead to hormonal changes that include low thyroid levels (hypothyroidism) and elevated stress hormone levels (hypercortisolism). These changes produce a reduction in reproductive hormones.
    • Athletic Training:

      Amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea associated with vigorous physical activity may be related to stress and weight loss. A syndrome known as the female athlete triad is associated with hormonal changes that occur with the combination of eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteopenia (loss of bone density that can lead to osteoporosis) in young women who excessively exercise.
    • Stress

      . Physical and emotional stress may block the release of luteinizing hormone, causing temporary amenorrhea.
    • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS):

      PCOS is a condition in which the ovaries produce high amounts of androgens (male hormones), particularly testosterone. Amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea is quite common in women who have PCOS.
    • Elevated Prolactin Levels (Hyperprolactinemia):

      Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates breast development and milk production in association with pregnancy. High levels of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) in women who are not pregnant or nursing can reduce gonadotropin hormones and inhibit ovulation, thus causing amenorrhea.
    • Premature Ovarian Failure (POF):

      POF is the early depletion of follicles before age 40. In most cases, it leads to premature menopause. POF is a significant cause of infertility.
    • Structural Problems:

      In some cases, structural problems or scarring in the uterus may prevent menstrual flow. Inborn genital tract abnormalities may also cause primary amenorrhea.
    • Other Medical Conditions:

      Epilepsy, thyroid problems, celiac sprue, metabolic syndrome, and Cushing's disease are associated with amenorrhea.

    If the ovaries produce too much androgen (hormones such as testosterone) a woman may develop male characteristics. This ovarian imbalance can be caused by tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands, or polycystic ovarian disease. Virilization may include growth of excess body and facial hair, amenorrhea (loss of menstrual period) and changes in body contour.

    Risk Factors

    Age plays a key role in menstrual disorders. Girls who start menstruating at age 11 or younger are at higher risk for severe pain, longer periods, and longer menstrual cycles. Adolescents may develop amenorrhea before their ovulation cycles become regular.

    Women who are approaching menopause (perimenopause) may also skip periods. Occasional episodes of heavy bleeding are also common as women approach menopause.

    Other risk factors include:

    • Weight:

      Being either excessively overweight or underweight can increase the risk for dysmenorrhea (painful periods) and amenorrhea (absent periods).
    • Menstrual Cycles and Flow:

      Longer and heavier menstrual cycles are definitely associated with painful cramps.
    • Pregnancy History:

      Women who have had a higher number of pregnancies are at increased risk for menorrhagia. Women who have never given birth have a higher risk of dysmenorrhea, while women who first gave birth at a young age are at lower risk.
    • Smoking:

      Smoking can increase the risk for heavier periods.
    • Stress:

      Physical and emotional stress may block the release of luteinizing hormone, causing temporary amenorrhea.



    Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) is the most common cause of anemia (reduction in red blood cells) in premenopausal women. A blood loss of more than 80mL (around 3 tablespoons) per menstrual cycle can eventually lead to anemia. Most cases of anemia are mild. Nevertheless, even mild-to-moderate anemia can reduce oxygen transport in the blood, causing symptoms such as fatigue, lightheadedness, and pale skin. Severe anemia that is not treated can lead to heart problems.


    Amenorrhea (absent or irregular menstrual periods) caused by reduced estrogen levels is linked to osteopenia (loss of bone density) and osteoporosis (more severe bone loss that increases fracture risk). Because bone growth is at its peak in adolescence and young adulthood, losing bone density at that time is very dangerous and early diagnosis and treatment is essential for long-term health.

    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone density, thinning of bone tissue, and increased vulnerability to fractures. Osteoporosis may result from disease, dietary or hormonal deficiency, or advanced age. Regular weight-bearing exercise and strength training, and calcium and vitamin D supplements, can reduce and even reverse loss of bone density.


    Some conditions associated with heavy bleeding, such as ovulation abnormalities, fibroids, or endometriosis, can contribute to infertility. Many conditions that cause amenorrhea, such as ovulation abnormalities and polycystic ovary syndrome, can also cause infertility. Irregular periods from any cause may make it more difficult to conceive. Sometimes treating the underlying condition can restore fertility. In other cases, specific fertility treatments that use assisted reproductive technologies may be needed.

    Quality of Life

    Menstrual disorders, particularly pain and heavy bleeding, can affect school and work productivity and social activities.


    Your medical history can help a health care provider determine whether a menstrual problem is caused by another medical condition. For example, non-menstrual conditions that may cause abdominal pain include appendicitis, urinary tract infections, ectopic pregnancy, and irritable bowel syndrome. Endometriosis and uterine fibroids may cause heavy bleeding and pain.

    Your provider may ask questions concerning:

    • Menstrual cycle patterns, including length of time between periods, number of days that periods last, number of days of heavy or light bleeding
    • The presence or history of any medical conditions that might be causing menstrual problems
    • Any family history of menstrual problems
    • History of pelvic pain
    • Regular use of any medications (including vitamins and over-the-counter drugs)
    • Diet history, including caffeine and alcohol intake
    • Past or present contraceptive use
    • Any recent stressful events
    • Sexual history

    Menstrual Diary

    : A menstrual diary is a helpful way to keep track of changes in menstrual cycles. You should record when your period starts, how long it lasts, and the amount of bleeding and pain that occurs during the course of menstruation.

    Pelvic Examination:

    A pelvic exam is a standard part of diagnosis. A Pap test may be done during this exam.

    Blood Tests

    Blood tests can help rule out other conditions that cause menstrual disorders. For example, your provider may test thyroid function to make sure that low thyroid (hypothyroidism) is not present. Blood tests can also check follicle-stimulating hormone, estrogen, and prolactin levels.

    Women who have menorrhagia (heavy bleeding) may get tests for bleeding disorders. If women are losing a lot of blood, they should also get tested for anemia.


    Imaging techniques are often used to detect certain conditions that may be causing menstrual disorders. Imaging can help diagnose fibroids, endometriosis, or structural abnormalities of the reproductive organs.

    Ultrasound and Sonohysterography:

    Ultrasound is a painless procedure and is the standard imaging technique for evaluating the uterus and ovaries. It can help detect fibroids, ovarian cysts and tumors, and obstructions in the urinary tract. Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce an image of the organs.

    Transvaginal sonohysterography uses ultrasound along with a probe (transducer) placed in the vagina. Sometimes saline (salt water) is injected into the uterus to enhance visualization.

    Other Diagnostic Procedures


    Hysteroscopy is a procedure that can detect the presence of fibroids, polyps, or other causes of bleeding. It may miss cases of uterine cancer, however, and is not a substitute for more invasive procedures, such as dilation and curettage (D&C) or endometrial biopsy, if cancer is suspected.

    Hysteroscopy is done in the office setting and requires no incisions. The procedure uses a slender flexible or rigid tube called a hysteroscope, which is inserted into the vagina and through the cervix to reach the uterus. A fiber-optic light source and a tiny camera in the tube allow the health care provider to view the cavity. The uterus is filled with saline or carbon dioxide to inflate the cavity and provide better viewing. This can cause cramping.

    Hysteroscopy is non-invasive, but many women find the procedure painful. The use of an anesthetic spray such as lidocaine can help prevent pain from this procedure. Other complications include excessive fluid absorption, infection, and uterine perforation. Hysteroscopy is also performed as part of surgical procedures.


    Diagnostic laparoscopy, an invasive surgical procedure, is used to diagnose and treat endometriosis, a common cause of dysmenorrhea. Laparoscopy normally requires a general anesthetic, although the patient can go home the same day. The procedure involves inflating the abdomen with gas through a small abdominal incision. A fiber optic tube equipped with small camera lenses (the laparoscope) is then inserted. The health care provider uses the laparoscope to view the uterus, ovaries, tubes, and peritoneum (lining of the pelvis).

    Endometrial Biopsy:

    When heavy or abnormal bleeding occurs, an endometrial (uterine) biopsy may be performed in a medical office. This procedure can help identify abnormal cells, which suggest that cancer may be present. It may also help the doctor decide on the best hormonal treatment to use. The procedure is done without anesthesia, or local anesthetic is injected.

    • The woman lies on her back with her feet in stirrups. An instrument (speculum) is inserted into the vagina to hold it open and allow the cervix to be viewed.
    • The cervix is cleaned with an antiseptic liquid and then grasped with an instrument (tenaculum) that holds the uterus steady. A device called a cervical dilator may be needed to stretch the cervical canal if there is tightness (stenosis). A small, hollow plastic tube is then gently passed into the uterine cavity.
    • Gentle suction removes a sample of the lining. The tissue sample and instruments are removed. A specialist called a pathologist examines the sample under a microscope.

    Dilation and Curettage (D&C):

    D&C is a more invasive procedure:

    • A D&C is usually done in an outpatient setting so that the woman can return home the same day, but it sometimes requires a general anesthetic. It may need to be performed in the operating room to rule out serious conditions or treat some minor ones that may be causing the bleeding.
    • The cervix (the neck of the uterus) is dilated (opened).
    • The surgeon scrapes the inside lining of the uterus and cervix.

    The procedure is used to take samples of the tissue, and to relieve heavy bleeding in some instances.

    Lifestyle Changes

    Dietary Factors

    Dietary adjustments, starting about 14 days before a period may help some women with certain mild menstrual disorders, such as cramping. The general guidelines for a healthy diet apply to everyone; they include eating plenty of whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and avoiding saturated fats and commercial junk foods.

    Limiting salt (sodium) may help reduce bloating. Limiting caffeine, sugar, and alcohol intake may also be beneficial.

    Preventing and Treating Anemia

    Dietary Forms of Iron:

    Women who have heavy menstrual bleeding can sometimes become anemic. Eating iron-rich foods can help prevent anemia. Iron found in foods is either in the form of heme or non-heme iron. Heme iron is better absorbed than non-heme iron.

    • Foods containing heme iron are the best sources for increasing or maintaining healthy iron levels. Such foods include (in order of iron-richness) clams, oysters, organ meats, beef, pork, poultry, and fish.
    • Non-heme iron is less well absorbed. A substantial amount of the iron in meat is non-heme (although meat itself helps absorb non-heme iron). Eggs, dairy products, and iron-containing vegetables have only the non-heme form. Such vegetable products include dried beans and peas, iron-fortified cereals, bread, and pasta products, dark green leafy vegetables (chard, spinach, mustard greens, and kale), dried fruits, nuts, and seeds.

    Increasing intake of vitamin C rich foods can enhance absorption of non-heme iron.

    Iron Supplements:

    There are two forms of supplemental iron: ferrous and ferric. Ferrous iron is better absorbed and is the preferred form of iron tablets. Ferrous iron is available in three forms: ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, and ferrous gluconate. Depending on the severity of your anemia, as well as your age and weight, your doctor will recommend a dosage of 60 to 200 mg of elemental iron per day. This means taking 1 iron pill 2 to 3 times each day.

    Other Lifestyle Measures


    Exercise may help reduce menstrual pain.

    Sexual Activity:

    There have been reports that orgasm reduces the severity of menstrual cramps.

    Applying Heat:

    Applying a heating pad to the abdominal area, or soaking in a hot bath, can help relieve the pain of menstrual cramps.

    Menstrual Hygiene:

    Change tampons every 4 to 6 hours. Avoid scented pads and tampons; feminine deodorants can irritate the genital area. Douching is not recommended because it can destroy the natural bacteria normally present in the vagina. Bathing regularly is sufficient.

    Alternative Remedies

    Acupuncture and Acupressure:

    Some studies have reported relief from pelvic pain after acupuncture or acupressure, a technique that applies small pins or pressure to specific points on the body. More research is needed.

    Yoga and Meditation:

    Yoga and meditative techniques that promote relaxation may help relieve menstrual cramps.

    Herbs and Supplements:

    Generally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need approval from the Food and Drug Administration to sell their products. Just like with drugs, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful.

    There have been a number of reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. You should check with your health care provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements.

    Studies have not generally found herbal or natural remedies to be any more effective than placebos (sugar pills) for reducing menstrual disorders. Natural remedies promoted for menstrual symptoms include:

    • Black cohosh (also known as Cimicifuga racemosa or squawroot) contains a plant estrogen and is the most studied herbal remedy for treating menopausal symptoms, including dysmenorrhea, although most studies have indicated it is ineffective. Headaches and gastrointestinal problems are common side effects. It should not be taken for more than 6 months.
    • Ginger tea or capsules may help to relieve nausea and bloating.
    • Magnesium supplements may be helpful for relieving dysmenorrhea. Some women also report benefit with vitamin B1 (thiamine) supplements.
    • Aromatherapy with topically-applied lavender, sage, and rose oils may help ease menstrual cramps, according to some small studies.
    • Pycnogenol, an extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree, may help reduce menstrual pain and discomfort, according to some small studies.


    There are a number of different medicines prescribed for menstrual disorders.

    Common Pain Relievers for Cramps

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs):

    NSAIDs block prostaglandins, the substances that increase uterine contractions. They are effective painkillers that also help control the inflammatory factors that may be responsible for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Among the most effective NSAIDs for menstrual disorders are ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Midol PMS, generic) and naproxen (Aleve, generic), which are both available over-the-counter, and mefenamic acid (Ponstel, generic), which requires a doctor's prescription. Long-term daily use of any NSAID can increase the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, so it is best to just use these drugs for a few days during the menstrual cycle.

    An ulcer is a crater-like lesion on the skin or mucous membrane.


    (Tylenol, generic) is a good alternative to NSAIDs, especially for women with stomach problems or ulcers. Some products (Pamprin, Premsyn, generic) combine acetaminophen with other drugs, such as a diuretic, to reduce bloating. .

    Oral Contraceptives

    Oral contraceptives (OCs), commonly called birth control pills or "the Pill," contain combinations of an estrogen and a progesterone (in a synthetic form called progestin).

    The estrogen compound used in most combination OCs is estradiol. There are many different progestins, but common types include levonorgestrol, drospirenone, and norgestrol. Natazia, an OC that contains estradiol and the progesterone dienogest, is specifically approved for treatment of heavy bleeding.

    OCs are often used to regulate periods in women with menstrual disorders, including menorrhagia (heavy bleeding), dysmenorrhea (severe pain), and amenorrhea (absence of periods). Oral contraceptives are as effective for treating pelvic pain from endometriosis as the more potent gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists. They also protect against ovarian and endometrial cancers.

    Standard OCs usually comes in a 28-pill pack with 21 days of "active" (hormone) pills and 7 days of "inactive" (placebo) pills. Extended-cycle (also called "continuous-use" or "continuous-dosing") oral contraceptives aim to reduce or eliminate monthly menstrual periods. These OCs contain a combination of estradiol and the progestin levonorgestrel, but they use extending dosing of active pills with 81 to 84 days of active pills followed by 7 days of inactive or low-dose pills. Some types of continuous-dosing OCs use only active pills, which are taken 365 days a year

    Side effects

    : Common side effects of combination OCs include headache, nausea, bloating, breast tenderness, and bleeding between periods. The estrogen component in combination OCs is usually responsible for these side effects. In general, today's OCs are much safer than OCs of the past because they contain much lower dosages of estrogen.

    However, all OCs can increase the risk for migraine, stroke, heart attack, and blood clots. The risk is highest for women who smoke, who are over age 35, or who have a history of heart disease risk factors (such as high blood pressure or diabetes) or past cardiac events. Women who have certain metabolic disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are also at higher risk for the heart-related complications associated with these pills. Some types of combination OCs contain progestins, such as drospirenone, which have a much higher risk for causing blood clots than levonorgestrel.


    Progestins (synthetic progesterone) are used by women with irregular or skipped periods to restore regular cycles. They also reduce heavy bleeding and menstrual pain, and may protect against uterine and ovarian cancers. Progestin-only contraceptives may be a good option for women who are not candidates for estrogen-containing OCs, such as smokers over the age of 35.

    Progestins can be delivered in various forms.


    Short-term treatment of anovulatory bleeding (bleeding caused by lack of ovulation) may involve a 21-day course of an oral progestin on days 5 to 26. Medroxyprogesterone (Provera, generic) is commonly used.

    Intrauterine Device (Mirena):

    An intrauterine device (IUD) that releases progestin can be very beneficial for menstrual disorders, regardless of its contraceptive effects. In the United States, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, also called an LNG-IUS, is sold under the brand name Mirena. The LNG-IUS has been proven to reduce heavy bleeding and pain in many women who suffer from menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. It is the only IUD approved by the FDA to treat heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Many doctors recommend the LNG-IUS as a first-line treatment for severe heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women who may face hysterectomy (removal of uterus) or conservative surgery such as endometrial ablation (destruction of the endometrial lining). This device is considered a good long-term option, especially for women who may desire future pregnancies. Research also indicates that women who choose the LNG-IUS are highly satisfied with the results and experience an improved quality of life equal to those who choose surgery.

    The LNG-IUS remains in place in the uterus and releases the progestin levonorgestrel for up to 5 years. Progestin released by an IUD mainly affects the uterus and cervix, and so it causes fewer widespread side effects than progestin pills do.

    After the LNG-IUS is inserted, heaver periods may occur during the first 3 to 6 months as the lining of the uterus is shed. This shedding may also cause irregular periods and light bleeding ("spotting") between menstrual cycles. Eventually, the LNG-IUS results in a shorter period, with little or no blood flow. For many women, the LNG-IUS completely stops menstrual periods.

    Common side effects may include cramping, acne, back pain, breast tenderness, headache, mood changes, and nausea. The LNG-IUS may increase the risk for ovarian cysts, but such cysts usually cause no symptoms and resolve on their own. Women who have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease or who have had a serious pelvic infection should not use the LNG-IUS. Because of the risks associated with pelvic infection, health care providers recommend that women who use the LNG-IUS be in a stable monogamous relationship. The LNG-IUS does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.

    Injection (Depo-Provera):

    Depo-Provera (also called Depo or DMPA) uses the progestin medroxyprogesterone, which is administered by injection once every 3 months. Most women who use Depo-Provera stop menstruating altogether after a year. Depo-Provera may be beneficial for women with heavy bleeding, or pain due to endometriosis. Women who eventually want to have children should be aware that Depo-Provera can cause persistent infertility for up to 22 months after the last injection, although the average is 10 months.

    Weight gain can be a problem, particularly in women who are already overweight. Women should not use Depo-Provera if they have a history of liver disease, blood clots, stroke, or cancer of the reproductive organs. Depo-Provera should not be used for longer than 2 years because it can cause loss of bone density.

    GnRH Agonists

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are sometimes used to treat severe menorrhagia. GnRH agonists block the release of the reproductive hormones LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicular-stimulating hormone). As a result, the ovaries stop ovulating and no longer produce estrogen.

    GnRH agonists include the implant goserelin (Zoladex), a monthly injection of leuprolide (Lupron Depot, generic), and the nasal spray nafarelin (Synarel). Such drugs may be used alone or in preparation for procedures used to destroy the uterine lining. They are not generally suitable for long-term use.

    Commonly reported side effects, which can be severe in some women, include menopausal-like symptoms. These symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, changes in the vagina, weight change, and depression. The side effects vary in intensity depending on the GnRH agonist. They may be more intense with leuprolide and persist after the drug has been stopped.

    The most important concern is possible osteoporosis from estrogen loss. Women should not take these drugs for more than 6 months. Add-back therapy, which provides doses of estrogen and progestin that are high enough to maintain bone density but are too low to offset the beneficial effects of the GnRH agonist, may be used.

    GnRH treatments may increase the risk for birth defects. Women who are taking GnRH agonists should use non-hormonal birth control methods, such as the diaphragm, cervical cap, or condoms.


    Danazol (Danocrine, generic) is a synthetic substance that resembles a male hormone. It suppresses estrogen, and therefore menstruation, and is occasionally used (sometimes in combination with an oral contraceptive) to help prevent heavy bleeding. It is not suitable for long-term use, and due to its masculinizing side effects it is only used in rare cases. GnRH agonists have largely replaced the use of danazol.

    Adverse side effects include facial hair, deepening of the voice, weight gain, acne, and reduced breast size. Danazol may also increase the risk for unhealthy cholesterol levels and it may cause birth defects.

    Non-Hormonal Drugs (Lysteda)

    Tranexamic acid (Lysteda) is a newer medication for treating heavy menstrual bleeding and the first non-hormonal drug for menorrhagia treatment. Tranexamic acid is given as a pill. It is an anti-fibrinolytic drug that helps blood to clot. The FDA warns that use of this medication by women who take hormonal contraceptives may increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attacks. This drug should not be taken by women who have a history of blood clots.


    Women with heavy menstrual bleeding, painful cramps, or both have surgical options available to them. Most procedures eliminate or significantly affect the possibility for childbearing, however. Hysterectomy removes the entire uterus while endometrial ablation destroys the uterine lining.

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, or LNG-IUS (Mirena), is increasingly being used instead of surgery to treat heavy menstrual bleeding. Studies have found the LNG-IUS works just as well as ablation. Women should be sure to ask their doctors about all medical options before undergoing surgical procedures.

    Endometrial Ablation

    In endometrial ablation, the entire lining of the uterus (the endometrium) is removed or destroyed. For most women, this procedure stops the monthly menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow is not stopped but is significantly reduced.

    Endometrial ablation is not appropriate for women who:

    • Have gone through menopause
    • Have recently been pregnant
    • Would like to have children in the future
    • Have certain gynecologic conditions such as cancer of the uterus, endometrial hyperplasia, uterine infection, or an endometrium that is too thin


    : Endometrial ablation significantly decreases the likelihood a woman will become pregnant. However, pregnancy can still occur and this procedure increases the risks of complications, including miscarriage. Women who have this procedure must be committed to not becoming pregnant and to using birth control. Sterilization after ablation is another option.

    A main concern of endometrial ablation is that it may delay or make it more difficult to diagnose uterine cancer in the future. (Postmenopausal bleeding or irregular vaginal bleeding can be warning signs of uterine cancer.) Women who have endometrial ablation still have a uterus and cervix, and should continue to have regular Pap smears and pelvic exams.

    Types of Endometrial Ablation:

    Endometrial ablation used to be performed in an operating room using electrosurgery with a resectoscope (a hysteroscope with a heated wire loop or roller ball.) Laser ablation was another older procedure. These types of endometrial ablation have largely been replaced by newer types of procedure that do not use a resectoscope.

    The newer procedures can be performed either in an operating room or a doctor's office. They include:

    • Radiofrequency. The NovaSure system uses a mesh electrode probe that emits electromagnetic energy to destroy the lining.
    • Heated fluid. In the HydroThermAblator system, a saline solution is inserted into the uterus with a hysteroscope and heated until the lining is destroyed. In the thermal balloon method, a balloon inserted into the uterus with hysteroscope is filled with heated fluid and expanded until it touches and destroys the endometrium.
    • Freezing. Cryoablation uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the uterine lining.
    • Microwave. Microwave endometrial ablation applies very low-power microwaves to the uterus.

    Before the Procedure:

    In preparing for the ablation procedure, the doctor will perform an endometrial biopsy to make sure that cancer is not present. If the woman has an intrauterine device (IUD), it must be removed before the procedure. In some cases, hormonal drugs, such as GnRH analogs, may be given a few weeks before ablation to help thin the endometrial lining.

    During the Procedure

    : Endometrial ablation is an outpatient procedure. The doctor usually applies a local anesthetic around the cervix. (The woman also receives medication for pain and to help her relax.) The doctor will dilate the cervix before starting the procedure. Women may feel some mild cramping or discomfort, but many of the newer types of endometrial procedures can be performed in less than 10 minutes.

    After the Procedure:

    Women may experience menstrual-like cramping for several days and frequent urination during the first 24 hours. The main side effect is watery or bloody discharge that can last for several weeks. This discharge is especially heavy in the first few days following ablation. Women need to wear pads, not tampons during this time, and to wait to have sex until the discharge has stopped. They are generally able to return to work or normal activities within a few days after the procedure.


    Complications of endometrial ablation may include perforation of the uterus, injury to the intestine, hemorrhage, or infection. If heated fluid is used in the procedure, it may leak and cause burns. However, in general, the risk of complications is very low.

    Nearly all women have reduced menstrual flow after endometrial ablation, and nearly half of women have their periods stop. Some women, however, may continue to have bleeding problems and ultimately decide to have second ablation procedure or a hysterectomy.


    Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.

    Hysterectomy - series

    Heavy bleeding, often from fibroids, and pelvic pain are the reasons for many hysterectomies. However, with newer medical and surgical treatments available, hysterectomies are performed less often than in the past.

    In its support, hysterectomy, unlike drug treatments and less invasive procedures, cures menorrhagia completely, and most women are satisfied with the procedure. Less invasive hysterectomy procedures are also improving recovery rates and increasing satisfaction afterward. Still, any woman who is uncertain about a recommendation for a hysterectomy to treat fibroids or heavy bleeding should certainly seek a second opinion.

    Some women who have hysterectomies have their ovaries removed along with their uterus. Surgical removal of the ovaries is called an oophorectomy. A hysterectomy does not cause menopause but removal of both ovaries (bilateral oophorectomy) does cause immediate menopause.

    Doctors may recommend hormone therapy for certain women. Hormone therapy for a woman who has her uterus uses a combination of estrogen and progestin because estrogen alone increases the risk for endometrial (uterine) cancer. However, women who have had their uteruses removed do not have this risk and can take estrogen alone, without the progestin.

    Nerve Destruction Techniques for Treating Dysmenorrhea

    Some evidence suggests that surgically cutting the pain-conducting nerve fibers leading from the uterus diminishes the pain from dysmenorrhea. Two procedures, laparascopic uterine nerve ablation (LUNA) and laparoscopic presacral neurectomy (LPSN), can block such nerves.

    Some small studies have shown benefits from these procedures, but stronger evidence is needed before they can be recommended for women with severe primary dysmenorrhea or the chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Many insurance companies consider these procedures experimental and will not pay for them.



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            Review Date: 4/2/2015  

            Reviewed By: Irina Burd, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Author: Julia Mongo, MS.

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